Like the orange juice concentrate in the back of your fridge, cannabis concentrates are a condensed form of the plant's most prized components. Without the plant matter, they contain all the cannabinoids and terpenes of cannabis flowers. Compared to an ounce of raw cannabis flowers, the concentration of cannabinoids and terpenes in marijuana concentrates is far higher.
Cannabinoids and terpenes are responsible for the various effects, aromas, and smells associated with cannabis. Microscopic, sparkling structures called trichomes can be found throughout a cannabis plant. Concentrated cannabis is a more focused form of the trichomes that grow on the plant. Pick up any premium bud to see for yourself. Each and every part of the plant is covered in these frosty appendages, but they are most noticeable on the developing flower buds.
Because of their varied textures and consumption methods, cannabis concentrates make it possible to enjoy the plant's best qualities in a wide variety of contexts. Depending on the final product, cannabis concentrates and extracts can be consumed separately, added to a joint to increase its strength, or measured and incorporated into various foods.
Cannabinoids are chemical compounds that interact with the endocannabinoid system, which is found throughout the human body and brain. Cannabinoids have been extracted from the cannabis plant in 113 different forms by researchers up to this point.
One of the primary active components of cannabis is called THC, and it is primarily responsible for the well-known high that cannabis produces. Then there is CBD, which is responsible for many of the medical benefits that are associated with the cannabis plant. The cannabinoid profile of a cannabis strain has a significant impact on the strain's signature qualities.
Terpenes are a class of chemical compounds that can be discovered both in plants and insects. They give off a pungent odor, which probably serves to defend plants by discouraging potential predators and luring natural foes that feed on these invasive species.
Over one hundred twenty distinct terpenes have been isolated from the cannabis plant thus far. They give different strains of cannabis their own unique flavor and can enhance the psychoactive and medicinal properties of the plant. A high-quality concentration is maintained for each of the cannabinoids and terpenes that have been extracted from the cannabis plant.
Terpenes and cannabinoids are present in the cannabis plant's trichomes, where they are also synthesized. This refers to the white crystalline hairs that cover the surface of the plant's inflorescences. They contribute to the buds' sticky stickiness. The term trichome is derived from Greek and means "hair growth."
Trichomes are thought to play a vital function in protecting cannabis plants from insects as well as the effects of the weather. Trichomes seem crystalline, but when handled, they release the resin they contain and become sticky. They are most typically seen in the calyxes of cannabis plants.
Cannabis has two types of trichomes: glandular and non-glandular. Cannabinoids and terpenes are produced by glandular trichomes, which are classified into three types: tuberous, head-shaped without a stalk, and head-shaped with a stalk. Tuberous trichomes are the tiniest, measuring 10-30 micrometers. They are evenly dispersed over the plant's surface.
The next biggest is stalkless head-shaped trichomes. These, however, are normally only visible under a microscope; they are frequently seen on the underside of the fan leaves as well as the little leaves that sprout from the cola. Finally, head-shaped trichomes with stalks are the most intriguing to us; they appear in vast quantities on the plant's blooms and can be seen with the naked eye at 50-100 micrometers.
The main distinction in concentrates is the contrast between extracted and non-extracted concentrates. For example, hashish is a well-known non-extracted concentration. Extracts are concentrations in which the active component of interest is dissolved from the cannabis plant using a solvent. Extracts can be further classified based on the finished product's consistency and if a solvent was employed. The most well-known extracts include budder, wax, and shatter.
Concentrates comprise a diverse range of items. The preparations and even the intake required to vary on the sort of concentrate you intend to manufacture. First, you must determine whether you want to test a solvent-free concentrate or a product that is created with the use of solvents.
Solvent-free concentrates are precisely what their name implies: they are concentrates produced without the use of solvents by the application of heat and pressure. Or, to put it another way, they aren't extracted. It is somewhat perplexing because water is not considered a solvent in cannabis extracts. As a result, concentrations made with water are not considered extracts.
Kief is the most basic type of concentration. It is made up of trichomes removed from the plant's blooms. Because trichomes are easily detached, kief is often produced inadvertently when buds brush against the wall of the container in which they are housed. You might take advantage of this by purchasing a grinder with a kief section, which would prevent the detached trichomes from being wasted.
However, you may produce kief on purpose by thoroughly shaking cannabis flowers through a fine filter. After that, the kief may be scraped off. Before you begin, place the cannabis flowers in the freezer for a few hours to let the trichomes fall off more easily. A pollinator with a spinning drum is an easy method to automate this procedure if you have the resources.
Kief may also be created by placing your cannabis flowers in the blender and covering them with cold water. Mix everything thoroughly and set aside for 30 minutes. After that, strain the mixture into a glass using a fine strainer. The water and kief will be separated from the rest of the plant material. After this, strain the kief water through a coffee filter to separate the kief and water. The kief can then be dried by squeezing the coffee filter.
Hash is essentially a compressed kief. This raises the density and potency of the chosen trichomes even more. Hash is a traditional concentration that is popular all around the world. It is still the most prevalent mode of consumption in Europe, while bud consumption leads the pack in North America. The shoe technique is one approach to preparing hash.
Wrap the kief in cellophane firmly and store it in a plastic bag. The bag should be sealed and should not produce air bubbles. Place the bag on your shoe's heel and walk around with it. Within 15 minutes, a new product will be created via heat and pressure.
The longer you walk on it, the more concentrated you will be. Another option is to press your kief into a hash using a pollen press. This method relies heavily on physical force, allowing you to simply and inexpensively press your hashish talers. Using heat and pressure yields the greatest outcomes.
Wrapping your kief with organic cellophane or baking paper is another option. Soak the packet in warm water for ten minutes before placing it in a 175°C oven. Remove the package and apply the required pressure with a rolling pin or a pollen press. This method can be done numerous times to improve concentration.
Furthermore, the kief can be wrapped as described above and pressed using a wine bottle filled with hot water. Pay attention to the color of the kief; if it changes rapidly after coming into touch with the hot bottle, it signifies you don't need to roll it over as firmly as possible to compress it. More effort will be required if the color changes take 30 seconds.
Charas is quite similar to hashish. The primary distinction is that Charas is created from unprocessed fresh-cut leftovers, whereas hashish is made from dried cannabis buds. Charas is quite popular, especially in India, and is generally marketed in the form of balls or little sticks.
It is smoked in a chillum, a pipe used by Hindu monks. Many Hindu currents worship Charas, believing Shiva to be the greatest god and Charas to be a portion of Shiva. When Charas is manufactured skillfully, the finished result is glossy and like glass marble.
Charas is created by rolling trichomes between your palms. First, wash your hands with fragrance-free soap. Then, take your preferred strain's new buds and softly work them between your fingers. Apply just enough pressure to release the resin without losing it. After you've worked the buds off, lay them aside and continue rubbing your palms together until the resin has formed a ball or stick. And your charas hash is ready.
The creation of bubble hash is becoming increasingly popular. Because water is not known to be a solvent, bubble hash is not referred to as a concentrate. In order to make bubble hash, cannabis flowers are put in a bucket with water and ice cubes.
The mixture is then agitated and filtered through numerous sieves of varying densities. Bubble hash may also be created in a washing machine. A more extensive explanation may be found here. Bubble hash has a very strong reputation due to its high-quality final result and purity, as well as the little chance of contamination.
The term "bubble" refers to a popular testing procedure used to determine the purity of various varieties of hashish. When smoked, high-quality hash should melt and start to bubble. This indicates that the product is made of trichome resin. If hashish begins to burn when heated, it includes both plant material and trichomes.
Rosin hash is quickly becoming another scene favorite. Rosin is made by simply extracting the resin from untreated flowers. The finished product is believed to be remarkably similar to butane hash oil, but the contentious butane gas is not employed in the manufacturing process.
You'll need a straightening iron and baking paper to make raisin hash. When the iron has achieved a temperature of around 160°C, lay the buds wrapped in the baking paper between the heated surfaces and push them firmly together. To keep your hands safe, use oven mitts or a towel. After a few seconds, remove the straightening iron and baking paper.
Terpenes and cannabinoids evaporate at greater temperatures and higher pressures. These are lost, but the yield is higher. Remove the baking paper to reveal little chunks of amber rosin hash on the interior. If the hash does not readily scrape off the baking paper, place it in the freezer for a few hours, and the raisin will come out nicely. Cannabutter may be made from the remaining plant material.
A solvent, as you may recall from chemistry class, is a liquid that dissolves a solid and transforms it into a liquid solution. Alcohol, butane, propane, and CO2 are common solvents in the cannabis industry. Water, as previously stated, is not considered a solvent. Extracts and, in most cases, hash oils are the names given to solvent-based concentrates.
Extracts are frequently classed based on their consistency (wax, shatter, budder). However, the consistency is unrelated to the extraction process. The same extraction procedure can create numerous consistencies with the same beginning material, depending on how dry the starting material was and what end result you're targeting. As you can see, the extraction process and starting material are more relevant determinants of the extract's quality and texture than its uniformity.
Butane Hash Oil (BHO) is a hash oil used to produce shatter, wax, budder, and many other types of hash oil. While this chemical is immensely popular, it is also recognized for its hazardous manufacturing. Because butane is required, home manufacturing can soon become hazardous owing to the fire threat - some home BHO studies have already ended in explosions.
Shatter has a hard, glass-like consistency, as the name indicates (it means "to shatter," among other things in English). The concentrate is frequently translucent, although contrary to common assumption, clarity does not indicate purity.
Snap refers to shatter having a soft, liquid consistency, whereas pull-and-snap refers to elastic, toffee-like shatter. To create shatter, use one of the previously stated extraction techniques, but avoid any extraneous movement of the extract throughout the process to keep the glass-like consistency.
Wax is a general term that refers to any extracts that have a pliable and opaque substance. In most cases, the difference between shatter and wax is not attributable to the content of the extract but rather to the amount of agitation that was applied to it throughout the manufacturing process. When there is a lot of agitation, the molecules inside the extract are compressed in an uneven manner, which makes it more difficult for light to get through.
You are free to use any of the aforementioned methods of extraction when it comes to the manufacturing of wax. However, throughout the course of the production process, the extract ought to be agitated by shaking or by beating. You can find instructions that are more in-depth under the Honeycomb/Crumble and Budder sections, respectively.
BHO Honeycomb is a visually appealing concentration. It resembles a honeycomb because it is perforated with numerous holes formed by the suction created during pump cleaning. It is high in lipids, which give it a waxy look and render it solid and entirely opaque. It can also absorb terpenes extremely effectively, making it the greatest form of all BHO extracts. Honeycomb has become highly popular in recent years due to its unique taste.
This may be the most gorgeous BHO extract. Nonetheless, its popularity has waned in recent years as other types of extracts have supplanted it. Amber Glass, on the other hand, was formerly one of the most popular BHO processes.
It is created via the hibernation or winterization process. All waxes are separated using cold water after extraction but before purification. This results in an extremely pure extract. This degree of refinement has benefits and drawbacks. While it is high in cannabinoids, it lacks other elements that many users prefer, such as tasty terpenes. Furthermore, some individuals feel that the small amount of terpenes reduces the entourage effect.
Terp Sauce, or BHO Diamonds, is an extract that isolates the THC-A (Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid) molecules and terpenes from everything else. As a result, users may create their own concoctions by combining different concentrations and intensities.
The THC-A molecules detach from the resin due to the pressure during cooling. As a result, there are two concentrates: one with THC-A and one with terpenes. It is then up to the user to decide whether or not to smoke them together and at what concentrations.
Budder refers to wax with a creamy, buttery feel. Budder is a suitable "beginner's extract" since it is easier to work with and more tolerant of errors than shatter. Shatter may be turned into a budder simply by moving it back and forth on a heated plate. The secret to producing budder is to work it gently yet energetically for a long time while it is still hot.
Remember that consistency requires more skill than effort. Therefore it may take some time to achieve the desired level of consistency. Even if you don't get it quite right, the concentration is just as strong and will accomplish the job as effectively.
The variety of chemicals improves the entourage effect. The resulting product has a considerably richer terpene profile and is moister. The enhanced terpene content results not only in more powerful tastes but also in a broader spectrum of health advantages.
The downside of living resin is that freezing necessitates specialized laboratory equipment. Liquid nitrogen, which is maintained at -196°C, is frequently utilized. This effectively eliminates the possibility of producing Live Resin at home. Because of the additional complexities of the extraction process, Live Resin is often more costly than conventional extracts. Despite this, Live Resin is the best option for eating a terpene-rich concentrate.
PHO is similar to BHO, only it is made from propane instead of butane (thus the names - propane hash oil). PHO, like BHO, poses a fire hazard when made, although it's generally agreed that PHO poses less of a risk of contamination. Price-wise, PHO is preferable to BHO.
If you've ever used a vape pen, you've inhaled CO2 oil. CO2 oil is now dominating the industrial hash oil market because it has many advantages over other extraction methods, such as a contaminant-free extraction process, a high yield, and, most crucially, the ability to separate different cannabinoids and terpenes during extraction.
By adjusting the temperature and pressure of the supercritical CO2 used in the extraction process, the desired cannabinoids and terpenes can be isolated. Now, then, what's the catch? CO2 extraction is impractical for home usage since it necessitates costly equipment and laboratory knowledge.
More than a hundred cannabinoids, terpenes, and other components of the cannabis plant can be extracted using a variety of methods. Utilizing different solvents, including butane, CO2, propane, or alcohol, allows for the production of concentrates with varying concentrations and purities. The majority of these methods, however, call for specialized laboratory equipment and trained technicians. Butane and other solvents with high flammability potential might present fire hazards and require special attention.
Due to its adaptability and effectiveness, BHO extraction has quickly become one of the most popular methods. Besides these, you may utilize BHO to create shatter, wax, budder, and honeycomb. The THC content of BHO can exceed 90%, making it an extremely potent substance.
To make BHO, put cannabis buds in a container fitted with a screen or mesh and press the buds through the openings. Butane gas passes through the screen in the container, picking up cannabinoids and terpenes as it travels. Butane's non-polar hydrocarbon nature makes it well-suited for extracting compounds like cannabinoids and terpenes while leaving behind polar molecules like chlorophyll.
As the butane evaporates from the solution, it is transferred to a vacuum oven. Since the desired extract is eliminated during this process, it is sometimes referred to as purging. The use of butane in the production process leaves residual butane in the final product, which is a drawback. How harmful it is to inhale butane is unknown to us.
However, neopentane and hexane, both of which are known carcinogens, are often added to the gas in order to reduce its concentration. If BHO is extracted properly, the residual butane content in the final product should be negligible. In addition to BHO, consuming plant skins poses a health risk. The shiny appearance of peppers, for instance, is due to the thin plant skin that covers all plants.
When smoked, this coating disappears without a trace. According to research, vaporizing BHO exposes users to the wax layer, which can be inhaled and lead to the development of granulomas in the lungs. Some BHO makers employ unique methods to get rid of this wax coating. Granuloma's risks are largely unknown.
Dabbing, on the other hand, is thought by many experts to destroy the layer before it reaches the lungs due to the high temperatures utilized. The process used to remove BHO also carries some dangers. The BIC lighter in your pocket is evidence of how flammable butane is, and home BHO extraction has caused countless kitchen fires. The extraction of BHO is a dangerous process that should be left to experts.
There's also the issue of BHO's supposed potency. The effects of this extract are said to be more akin to LSD than those of cannabis. There have been reports of persons experiencing hallucinations and mental breakdowns. Starting with a low dose of BHO and increasing it as needed is the best approach.
Nonetheless, if you buy your BHO from a reliable expert provider, you can sidestep most of the pitfalls associated with this product. If you can find high-quality BHO that was produced in a safe manner, you may find the advantages to be worth the potential risks of performing this extraction method on your own.
Hash oil made using propane (PHO) is produced in the same way butane hash oil (BHO) is produced, with the exception that propane is used instead of butane. The pressure used in propane extraction is higher than that used in butane extraction, and the two methods yield different chemical compounds from the cannabis plant.
This process can help produce an extract with a lower wax content and improved terpene retention. Evaporation temperatures can be kept lower when working with propane than when dealing with butane. The final product has a buttery texture and fewer impurities because of this process. Propane, however, is a little more expensive than butane.
Creating PHO at home is just as dangerous as making BHO. Due to its high flammability, propane can cause an instant explosion if purifying procedures are not carried out by trained professionals or with sufficient safety equipment.
PHO's high terpene content results in a much more delicious high that is yet potent. PHO's primary shortcoming compared to BHO is that it can only be used to make budder consistent. On the other hand, if you're in the mood to sample a wide range of flavors, PHO is an excellent option. Find a reliable vendor, like BHO, to make your purchase from. Keep butane and propane in mind, as they are often used together in the extraction process by commercial manufacturers.
Alcohol-based extraction involves soaking cannabis buds in alcohol to remove cannabinoids and terpenes. Polar alcohol molecules destroy water-soluble substances like chlorophyll, making alcohol-based extraction more challenging than other methods. The chlorophyll gives the extracted substance a grassy flavor, which is a dealbreaker for most dabbing enthusiasts.
However, there are means whereby you might forestall this. To begin, decide whether to use isopropanol or ethanol for the extraction process. Since ethanol is safe and pure, you can use it. Decarboxylating (as opposed to grinding) your cannabis before beginning the extraction procedure will minimize the likelihood of plant material dissolution and increase the availability of desirable compounds.
Bake the cannabis in an oven preheated to 106°C to 120°C for 30 minutes to an hour. Put the buds and ethanol in different freezer bags. Alcohol extraction allows for a greater concentration of terpenes and cannabinoids to be retained while decreasing the risk that chlorophyll and other plant components will be lost due to the lower temperatures required.
When the temperature of the alcohol and the buds reaches -17°C, take the containers out of the freezer and pour enough ethanol over the buds to cover them by 5 to 7 centimeters. The alcohol will soak into the food if you stir it enough. After three minutes, strain the solution to remove the plant matter and keep the alcohol.
Buds should not be submerged in alcohol for too long, as this can lead to the dissolution of unwelcome plant components. As soon as the plant material is dry, it can be utilized to make cannabutter or undergo a second round of alcohol extraction. Now comes the time to refine the ethanol. This can be done with a professional filter with a 12-40 micron screen or a regular coffee filter.
Put the filtered substance into a glass mold halfway filled with water. To release the solvent as bubbles, heat the mold from 70°C to 80°C. When the massive bubbles have deflated, sift the mixture once more. This time, you should wait until the tiny bubbles pop. It's possible you'll need to repeat Steps 1–2 again. A water-based extract can be converted into an alcohol-based extract by filtering the final extraction water.
The approach is safe to try at home, as you can see from the detailed description. However, ethanol is a highly flammable liquid that requires special precautions during storage and transportation. Alcohol extraction is a delicate process that requires careful attention to detail and ample time. It could take a few tries before things start functioning normally.
Unlike the cannabis flower or bud, which is the plant's basic material, concentrates isolate the trichomes and concentrate them through the application of heat, pressure, and sometimes a solvent. The relative potency of cannabis flowers and concentrates is one of the most notable differences between the two forms. Because during processing, all but the most psychoactive components of the plant are removed, concentrates are always more powerful than buds.
A high-quality shatter or raisin may contain between 50 and 75 percent THC. CBD extracts, likewise, may consist entirely of CBD or may include both CBD and THC in varying proportions. With just a dab or a puff on the vaporizer, recreational users can experience the full effects of concentrates.
During the concentrate production process, the more delicate and uncommon cannabinoids and terpenes can be removed. Therefore, the flavor of cannabis flowers tends to be more pronounced. To preserve the full cannabinoid and terpene profile, the optimal extraction method employs unprocessed plant material (live extraction). To add, rosin has a remarkable ability to retain flavors.
Cannabis concentrates, like the orange juice concentrate in the back of your fridge, are a concentrated form of the plant's most valuable components. They include all the cannabinoids and terpenes found in cannabis flowers without plant debris. Compared to an ounce of raw cannabis flowers, marijuana extracts contain considerably more cannabinoids and terpenes.
Cannabinoids are organic compounds that interact with the endocannabinoid system of the human body and brain. So far, scientists have isolated 113 different cannabinoids from the cannabis plant. One of the essential active components is THC, which is largely responsible for the well-known cannabis high. Then there's CBD, which has many of the medical benefits of the cannabis plant. The combination of cannabinoids in a cannabis strain greatly determines its distinct personality.
Terpenes and cannabinoids are found in the trichomes of the cannabis plant, where they are also produced. This refers to the white crystalline hairs that cover the inflorescences of the plant. They add to the sticky stickiness of the buds. Trichomes originated from Greek and signify "hair growth." Trichomes are thought to have an important role in protecting cannabis plants from insects as well as weather influences. Trichomes appear crystalline, but when handled, they exude resin and become sticky. They are most commonly found in cannabis plant calyxes.
The primary distinction between concentrates is between extracted and non-extracted concentrates. Hashish, for example, is a well-known non-extracted concentration. Extracts are concentrated forms of the active component of interest that have been extracted from the cannabis plant using a solvent. Extracts are further categorized based on the resulting product's consistency and whether or not a solvent was used. Budder, wax, and shatter are among the most well-known extracts.
Solvent-free concentrates are exactly what their name implies: concentrates made without the use of solvents through the use of heat and pressure. To put it another way, they aren't even extracts. It's odd because, in the world of cannabis extracts, water isn't considered a solvent. As a result, water-based concentrations are not considered extracts.
As you may recall from chemistry class, a solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid and converts it to a liquid solution. In the cannabis industry, typical solvents include alcohol, butane, propane, and CO2. As previously stated, water is not considered a solvent. Solvent-based concentrations are known as extracts and, in most cases, hash oils.
Several hundred cannabinoids, terpenes, and other cannabis plant components can be extracted using various methods. Using different solvents, such as butane, CO2, propane, or alcohol, concentrates of varying concentrations and purities can be produced. However, the majority of these procedures necessitate the use of specialized laboratory equipment and skilled specialists. Butane and other solvents with a high flammability potential may pose fire threats and necessitate additional precautions.
Butane is transported to a vacuum oven as it evaporates from the solution. Because the desired extract is purged during this process, it is also known as purging. The usage of butane in the manufacturing process results in residual butane in the finished product, which is a disadvantage. We don't know how dangerous inhaling butane is. However, neopentane and hexane, recognized carcinogens, are frequently added to the gas to lessen its concentration.
Propane hash oil (PHO) is made in the same way that butane hash oil (BHO) is made, with the exception that propane is used instead of butane. Propane extraction uses higher pressure than butane extraction, and the two processes yield different chemical components from the cannabis plant.
Concentrates, as opposed to the plant's core material, the cannabis flower or bud, isolate and concentrate the trichomes through heat, pressure, and sometimes a solvent. One of the most noticeable distinctions between cannabis flowers and concentrates is their potency. Because all but the most psychoactive components of the plant are eliminated during processing, concentrates are always more potent than buds.
Disclaimer: This material is for informational purposes only and should not be relied on for legal, medical, financial, or any other form of professional advice.
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